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THE CHELONIANS AND AMPHIBIANS

CITES

PLEASE TAKE NOTE:

 

Singapore has been a member of The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) since November 1986.  

 

In Singapore, NPark (AVS), the authority that enforces and implements CITES regulations, allows only two species of chelonians, the Red Eared Slider and the Malayan Box Turtle (Appendix II); and three species of the amphibian family, Green Tree Frogs (Litoria caerulea), American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) and Crab-eating frog (Fejervarya cancrivora), to be kept as pets.

 

Click HERE for more.

What?

It is important to learn and understand the commitment, dedication, time and financial requirements needed to have a turtle, terrapin, or tortoise, collectively known as chelonians; and frogs or amphibians.

For example, the average lifespan of a Red Eared Slider (RES) and a Malayan Box Turtle (Ambos) is about 20-40 years in captivity, with proper care and management, they are able to live for 50 to 100 years respectively.  

 

However, many Singaporean pet owners are actually unprepared and unable to provide or

maintain a proper habitat for their growing chelonian for even 10 years in our land-scarce urban jungle [9]

 

A study done in 2009 estimated that the RES is the third most common pet in Singapore, and evidently more common than cats, birds, rodents and rabbits [9].

 

This study discovered that only 3 out of 70 interviewees had kept their pet RES for 10 years and 44% of the RES owners interviewed end up releasing their pets into the wild even though they knew that it is illegal (below) [9]

Light of Life Vet: Chart to show the ratio of the fate of RES in Singapore

Quote from the 2009 study [9]:

"Of the 400 households surveyed, 

132 households (33%) liked or felt there was 

nothing wrong with releasing turtles, 

172 households (43%) felt that it was wrong to do 

so and 74 households (18.5%) had no opinion 

or did not give an answer." 

Light of Life Vet: RES Release Location

Although they are known to be generally harmless and peaceful, these gregarious RES are also extremely territorial by nature, and those that managed to survive once released into the wild definitely can have an impact on our native fauna [9].

 

The study also reveal data that more than one 

million juvenile terrapins were imported in 2007 into Singapore, a 40% increase from 2001, making them easily available despite the persisting trend of RES abandonment in Singapore [9].

 

There is currently no statistic to reflect on the trend of amphibian pet ownership in Singapore.

RED EARED SLIDER OR RED EARED TERRAPIN (TRACHEMYS SCRIPTA ELEGANS)

Red Ear Sliders

The red-eared slider (RES) originated from the swampy areas around the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico, in warm climates in the southeastern of the United States. They live in these marshy areas with warm and calm water where they can easily crawl out of the water to bask in the sun and warm themselves up regularly, or where the females can leave the water for egg laying.

They are not only popular in the US, they are one of the most commonly and easily available chelonian pet in Singapore costing only SGD$2 - $5 each.

RES 1
Anatomy of terrapin

The top shell (carapace) of a baby RES is marked with fine swirls of yellow-green to dark green markings on top of a greenish base (bottom left). As it grow into an adult, the shell color can change to olive or yellow. The initial patterns turn darker, while some part of the shell get shades of yellow, white or even red. In older RES, the colour can gradually fade into a solid greenish-brown or dark olive colour. In some cases, the male RES turns completely black or dark gray as it ages.

Shell colour of a young RES
Colour difference of RES of different age group

Above: Terrapin anatomy. Pic by tortoisepimp.com

Above: Patel Red Ear Slider. Pic by Danny Joiner 2006

Above: Different carapace colour. Pic by Kerstin Hinze

DIET [2,5]

 

In their native habitat, RES are known to be omnivorous and are opportunistic feeders, therefore both plant-based and animal-based items should be offered to the pet RES.

 

In the wild, they can eat smaller aquatic vertebrates (small fish and tadpoles), invertebrates (slugs, crustacean and mollusks), a variety of algae and various parts of vascular plants. and carrion of larger animals (larger fish and birds).

 

However, their food habit and taste can change with age, preferring more plant-based food as they grow older. A high quality commercial pellets can make a good base for their daily ration but other items can also be added to improve their nutrition.

If you have decided to feed live food such as guppies, worms and crickets, you will have to ensure that your sources are clean and disease-free.

RES 2

A study has shown that when the ambient temperatures is the lowest in Singapore, the wild RES tend to forage lesser for food and their feeding habit becomes more prominent again when the ambient temperature is higher. Therefore, it is important that their bodies are warmed up before feeding commences daily.

RES food animalspot

Above: Illustration from AnimalSpot

HABITAT SET UP [2,3,5]

The RES is almost completely aquatic and loves to swim, so the chosen enclosure must be able to contain enough water to allow them to dive and paddle, but at the same time, because these turtles are cold-blooded, they need to be able to come out of the water easily, from time to time to dry off, warm up and bask. Thus, their habitat requires extensive and careful planning to accommodate the dual requirement.

 

  • Choose a tank or terrarium of an appropriate size.

  • Place a ambient thermometer in the enclosure - ensure that ambient temperature remains between 30°C to 32°C

  • Set up a dry area.

  • Set up a swimming area.

  • Use clean tap water with  pH 7.0-7.5 and temperature around 25.5°C – 26.5°C. 

  • The water should be change and clean regularly to avoid diseases as the RES can create a lot of waste that contaminate the water quickly.

  • Use water pumps with a good filtering system to keep the water environment healthy and free of diseases.

 

  • Ramps leading from the water to the dry area should be angled at about 35˚ to the water surface for easy access.

  • RES do not hibernate, they brumate.  Brumation is an example of dormancy that is similar yet different to hibernation due to the metabolic processes involved.  Before the start of brumation, they may eat a lot more.

 

Once they brumate, they will still wake up to drink water but than quickly return to "sleep", and they can either eat very little or go for months without food. 

 

This period can persist for one to eight months depending on the ambient temperature and the size, age, and health of the reptile.

 

The smaller RES do not fully brumate, they slow down and eat less often. Brumation may be disrupted by increasing the body temperature and daylight hours.

RES enclosure good

Above: A very good example of an excellent RES indoor habitat set up by an unknown Reddit user with adequate, deep swimming space, a easy access to the land area, appropriate heat lights, and UVB lighting (CMTR).

  • Basking can be scheduled between 8am to about 2pm daily to ensure that adequate Vitamin D3 is created within the body using unfiltered sunlight (because the glass enclosure or the window will filter out 93-95% of the UV rays in sunlight ) which will then assist calcium absorption from the food.

 

A UVB 5% light installed about 30cm away from the chosen basking spot, turned on for 10-12 hours daily, can be used in place of basking in direct sunlight. The presence of UVA light will also improve feeding behaviour.

 

  • With some careful habitat planning in tropical Singapore, the ambient temperature within the enclosure can be kept between 30°C to 32°C  throughout the year without any extra heating effort and the RES can maintain its own body temperature at about 29°C -30°C. This higher body temperatures is known to increase their growth rate, allow them to mature earlier, encourage them to eat better as well as improve their digestion.

UVAUVB light bulb for reptiles
RES enclosure bad 1
RES enclosure bad 2

Above: Examples of a terrible habitat set ups that is misleading to the consumers, unnatural and restrictive to any growing RES.

MALAYAN BOX TURTLE

(Cuora amboiensis)

Malayan Box Turtles

The Malayan Box Turtle is a subspecies of the widespread South Asian Box Turtle (Cuora amboinensis). 

 

It is considered the commonest freshwater turtle in South-East Asia with a high tolerance of man-made artificial habitats, but the species is listed in CITES Appendix II due to over-exploitation.

 

An export ban of the Malayan Box Turtles was introduced by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN), the government’s wildlife agency in Peninsular Malaysia, in 2005 in attempt to protect the at risk species.  Similar exports bans follow soon after in Sabah and Sarawak.

 

The exports of turtles for the pet trade in Japan, Europe and the USA apparently ceased after the trigger of this ban, but recent reports found evidence of widespread illegal export of the turtle 

to Hong Kong, China and, to a lesser extent, Singapore.

There is no known commercial breeding of Asian Box Turtle in Malaysia or anywhere else because it is expensive, time-consuming and economically unfeasible due to the species' slow reproductive cycle, late sexual maturing rate (4-5 years old) and small clutch number (1-5 eggs). 

 

To meet the demand of the pet and food industry, a vast majority of Malayan Box Turtles taken illegally from the wild, in large numbers and at an unsustainable rate, are adults. This kind of practice poses a particular threat to this species as the younger, immature individuals are never given a chance to procreate to replace the population before they get abducted by the illegal traders and poachers.

 

In Singapore, the cost of a Malayan Box Turtle range from SGD$60 to SGD$120.

Malayan box turtle

Above: Head pattern of Malayan Box Turtle. Pic by www.ecologyasia.com

Malayan box turtle

Above: Malayan Box Turlte. Pic by en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Cuora_amboinensis_kamaroma_j.jpg, M. Noth

The Asian Box Turtles are affectionately called “ambos” in some countries. They are semi-aquatic, inhabits lowland lakes, swamps and other water bodies throughout South East Asia.

 

They have a black or dark brown carapace, with black or faded black coloured skin and limbs and have light yellow streaking on their neck and face. 

 

They can grow to about 20 - 30cm when matured. They have a hinge-line on their plastron (right) that allows the turtle to shut

its head and legs tightly in a protective shell. 

 

The carapace is dark, while the plastron is pale and mottled. 

 

Males usually have a slightly concave plastron (Right), and females have a flat plastron. Males also have longer, thicker tails. 

 

In captivity, healthy box turtles can live for about fifty years. In the wild, it’s believed that they may live up to a hundred and fifty.

Malayan box turtle diet

Above: Range of food for Malayan Box Turtle. Due to the rampant use of insecticide in Singapore, cockroaches are not a recommended food source. Poster from Pininterest - Jiří Motloch

DIET [1,5,8]

In the wild, the Malayan Box Turtle feeds on vegetation, fallen fruits and soft invertebrates such as worms and slugs. 

 

In captivity, the same range of food is unlikely to be replicated so the owner should feed a larger variety of foods.

They are omnivorous and can eat romaine lettuce, mealworms, waxworms, night crawlers, small mice, turtle pellets and other commercial turtle foods, banana, watermelon, tomatoes, blueberries and strawberries.

 

Calcium powder and multivitamins should be added into their daily ration to ensure proper nutrition. 

Malayan box turtle enclosure good

HABITAT SET UP [1,3,5]

The Asian box turtles (Ambos) likes to soak and swim therefore half of the enclosure must be water filled and the other half can be dry area for walking. A 75L long tank or large plastic tub will provide ample area for one or two Asian box turtles.  

Filtered water that is clean and clear with a good gentle movement or flow to introduce oxygen is important when keeping any aquatic or semi aquatic chelonians and preventing illnesses. 

The ideal water temperature should range from 25.5°C – 26.5°C. 

 

The water level for swimming have to be about 5-10cm for hatchlings and slowly deepen as they enlarge in size as they are known to be lesser of a swimmer, more of a paddler.

 

Avoid using small gravel as a substrate as Ambos might accidentally swallow some, causing intestinal impaction and health problems.

  • Choose a tank or terrarium of an appropriate size.

  • Place a ambient thermometer in the enclosure - ensure that ambient temperature remains between 30°C to 32°C

  • Set up a dry area.

  • Set up a swimming area - at least half the area of the enclosure.

  • Use clean tap water with pH 7.0-7.5 and temperature around 25.5°C – 26.5°C. 

  • The water should be change and clean regularly to avoid diseases as the Ambos can create a lot of waste that contaminate the water quickly.

  • Use water pumps with a good filtering system to keep the water environment healthy and free of diseases. 

  • Ramps leading from the water to the dry area should be angled at about 35˚ to the water surface for easy access.

  • Ambos do not hibernate.

  • Basking can be scheduled between 8am to about 2pm daily to ensure that adequate Vitamin D3 is created within the body using unfiltered sunlight (because the glass enclosure or the window will filter out 93-95% of the UV rays in sunlight ) which will then assist calcium absorption from the food.

 

A UVB 5% light installed about 30cm away from the chosen basking spot, turned on for 10-12 hours daily, can be used in place of basking in direct sunlight. The presence of UVA light will also improve feeding behaviour. 

  • With some careful habitat planning in tropical Singapore, the ambient temperature within the enclosure can be kept between 30°C to32°C throughout the year without any extra heating effort and the Ambos can maintain its own body temperature at about 29°C -30°C. 

 

This higher body temperatures is known to increase their growth rate, allow them to mature earlier, encourage them to eat better as well as improve their digestion..

DEFINITIONS [2]

  •  Hibernation  the process of inactivity (sleeping) during an extended period of time when an animal has a lower body temperature, slower breathing and conserves food by living off fat deposits, associated with cold weather.

 

  •  Brumation  the process of when reptiles slow down during cooler temperatures. They stop eating and become inactive. It’s different from hibernation as the reptiles are not technically in a sleeping state but rather have a slowed down metabolism that requires them to eat less. Do not confuse behaviour of sick chelonian as brumation.

 

  •  Estivation/ Aestivation the process of inactivity or dormancy during periods of extreme temperatures in which their metabolic rate is lowered associated with very hot weather. This activity protect the animal from drying out.

Adapted from http://www.caringpets.org

 

Terms Definition

COMMON DISEASES OF THE CHELONIANS [1,2,3,6,7,8]

Common Diseases of the Chelonians

METABOLIC BONE DISEASE

Most reptiles require the exposure of ultraviolet light to make their own Vitamin D in order to enable calcium metabolism.

 

If inadequate Vitamin D3 is manufactured by the body due to a lack of exposure to UVB, the chelonians will rapidly develop the condition known as Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD),  also known as secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism or osteoporosis. 

 

MBD is not just a calcium deficiency, but an inability to correctly utilize calcium  or an improper calcium/phosphorous ratio.  

 

MBD is the number one killer of pet chelonians. This is, strangely, one of the most common condition in sunny, tropical Singapore. 

Symptoms include:

  • Swellings/ oedema

  • Lethargy

  • General weakness in the muscle

  • Tremors 

  • Soft, pliable and deformed shell 

  • Soft and deformed mouth

To prevent MBD, adequate levels of calcium must be present in the diet, and adequate levels of UVB lighting must be achieved.

 

Other factors:

  • The UVB lamp must not be placed behind glass or most commercial acrylic/perspex, as 95% of UVB light

Severe MBD

Above: Septicaemia in a chelonian. Pic by Nikoletta Hetényi, Reseachgate.

will blocked and fine mesh on the enclosure will reduce UVB output by 50%.

  • The UVB lamp must be placed within about 30-45 cm from the chosen basking area,  placed too high above the animal and the UV index may be insufficient.

  • A lamp shade with a white coloured inner surface/reflectors should be used to increase the UVB output.

  • The UVB lamp should be replaced according to the manufacturer's instructions (usually around 12 months), as the UVB level is known to decrease over time.

  • Take note that the process to convert vitamin D3 to calcidiol is temperature dependent, so the chelonians must be kept at its preferred optimal temperature (30°C to 32° in the context of RES and Ambos), otherwise even with UVB provision, it cannot produce vitamin D3.

HYPOVITAMINOSIS A

The most characteristic sign of vitamin A deficiency in chelonians is swollen eyelids because a condition known as "squamous metaplasia" occurs in vitamin A deficiency.

 

This condition results in the thickening of the duct linings, blocking the flow of fluid, causing congestion and oedema in the tissues around the tear ducts, and ducts in the pancreas, liver and kidneys. 

 

The swelling can be so severe that the turtle cannot open its eyes and become moribund.

 

Chelonians fed a single ingredient diet like, iceberg lettuce, pure meat diet, or a poor quality commercial diet are prone to develop a vitamin A deficiency, since these foods have very low levels of this vitamin. Hatchlings fed high protein diets only are also at risk of developing this condition.

Symptoms include:

  • Swollen eyelids

  • Loss of appetite and weight

  • Raw skin with secondary bacterial infections

  • Nasal discharge (runny nose)

  • Necrotic stomatitis

  • Abnormal development of the eyes in embryos

Vitamin A is present in high quantities in green leafy vegetables (especially dandelion greens), yellow and orange vegetables such as carrots and yellow squash, whole fish, and liver. 

Aural abscess  in a chelonian

Aural abscesses represent middle ear infections in turtles and chelonians. In box turtles, these abscesses are commonly associated with vitamin A deficiencies. Courtesy of Dr. Stephen Divers. MerckVetManual.

To avoid this disease, a large variety of food should be fed to pet chelonians.

Foods High in Vitamin A

  • Apricots

  • Broccoli leaves and flowerets

  • Cantaloupe

  • Carrots

  • Collard greens

  • Dandelion greens 

  • Kale

  • Mango

  • Mustard greens

  • Nectarines

  • Papaya

  • Parsley

  • Peaches

  • Sweet potatoes

  • Spinach

  • Turnip greens

  • Yellow squash

  • Liver

  • Whole fish

SHELL ROT

Shell rot is, a descriptive term used to address any kind of problem associated with any infection of the shells, not a real disease name.

 

An undetected or untreated injury or shell damaged caused by fighting or aggressive behaviour with other chelonians kept in the same enclosure, rough walls or flooring in the habitat, wrong humidity causing the shell to dry up and crack or the shell to be constantly wet and soft and ectoparasites, like ticks, can also create tiny damages in the shell leading to infection.

 

Shell rot can lead to Septicaemic Cutaneous Ulcerative Disease (SCUD), which is a serious bacteria or fungal growth in the blood stream. It can be fatal very quickly as the multiplying pathogens will infect vital organs via the circulatory system causing multiple organ failure.

Symptoms include:

  • Uneven shell or plate

  • Discharge from the shell or visible under the shell with/ without a smell

  • Pitting of the shell 

  • Parts of the shell fall off, 

  • Visible bone parts or sections

  • Discolouration of the shell

Shell rot

Prevention:

 

  • Reduce aggression or bullying - 

    • do not mix species

    • keeping relatively same sized animals together 

  • Keeping all habitats clean 

  • Keep the water clean 

  • Regularly inspect the chelonians 

  • Regular veterinary check ups

First Aid:

  • Thorough cleaning with a povidone-iodine or chlorhexidine solution

  • Keep the affected area dry and well ventilated

  • Cover the affected area with a fine layer of gauze

Turtle Septicaemia

Poster by Tortoiseguy.us

Please seek veterinary medical assistance immediately if your chelonian has any of the above signs, as shell rot or septicaemia is fatal if left untreated.

GREEN TREE FROGS OR WHITE'S TREE FROG OR DUMPY TREE FROG 

(LITORIA CAERULEA)

Green Tree Frogs

It is one of the largest Australian frogs breed that is considered sedentary and docile. 

 

They are nocturnal, which means they are more active in the evening and night hours. 

 

Special exposure to UVB light may not be necessary in tropical Singapore unless the frogs are kept within glass encased enclosures. 

 

The younger frogs are less than 5 cm in length while the older adults can grow to about 12 cm.  Their average lifespan is about 16 years [4].

 

They have very sensitive skin so you will need to wash your hands thoroughly with warm water and rinse well before handling their bare skin. 

 

They are generally green in colour, as the name suggests, but some of the rarer specimens can be blue due to a lack of yellow pigmentation or yellow due to a lack of the blue pigmentation [4].

 

They sometimes sit beneath light sources at night to catch insects that are attracted to the light, but they are also capable of taking larger prey on the ground, including mice.

 

They have also been recorded catching bats around cave entrances and capable of cannibalism [4].

Green Tree Frog green
Green Tree Frog blue
Green Tree Frog yellow

Right: Pics by factzoo.com and foundation.qm.qld.gov.au

Green Tree Frog green 2

DIET [1,4]

  • Gut Loaded Crickets 

  • Moths

  • Beetles

  • Cockroaches - wild caught population is not recommended because of the rampant use of insecticide in urban Singapore.

  • Grasshoppers

  • Earthworms

Please note:

Feeding a single type of food is inadequate and not acceptable for the frogs, they will die due to malnutrition.

Above: Recommended supplementation frequency .

Obese Tree Frog

SIZE OF FROG

NUMBER OF CRICKETS

LARGE (>7CM)

SMALL (<7CM)

JUVENILE (<5CM)

3 LARGE/ 6 SMALL

3 SMALL

1 SMALL

Left: Pic by animals.net

 

Obese frogs have sags and folds above the eardrum. Underweight frogs have ridges above the eardrum [4]

 

Quantity of food should be adjusted based on the frog's resultant behavior and body condition.

FREQUENCY

EVERY 2-3 DAYS

EVERY 2-3 DAYS

EVERYDAY

SIZE OF FROG

CALCIUM & VITAMIN

LARGE (>7CM)

SMALL (<7CM)

JUVENILE (<5CM)

ONCE A WEEK

TWICE A WEEK

DAILY

HABITAT SET UP [1,3,4,6]

Choose a tank or terrarium of an appropriate size.

Select a substrate -:

  • Large gravel

  • Large bark pieces

  • Soil

  • Paper

  • Paper towel

**Do not use small gravel or bark that the frogs can ingest. 

  • Place a hygrometer in the enclosure to monitor the humidity - it should be maintained at about 50 to 60%. 

 

To help maintain the humidity within the enclosure, the internal area of the enclosure can be misted daily with bottled (not distilled) water and the original substrate can be covered with another layer of sphagnum moss 

  • Place a wide, shallow dish of water for the frogs to soak in and re-hydrate.

  • Do not use tap water directly on or for the frogs and other amphibians. Sit the tap water in an open container at room temperature for 48 hours before use. Alternatively, use bottled (not distilled) water only.

COMMON DISEASES OF THE GREEN TREE FROGS[1,3,4,6]

Common Diseases of the Amphibians

Due to the moist environment required by the amphibians, bacterial, protozoan and fungal infection can easily develop if the habitat is not maintain carefully or the pet is acquired from an unknown or illegal source.

 

We recommend that owners quarantine their new pets for at least 14 days before introduction into the main enclosure to avoid spread of contagious diseases to their original colony.

SALMONELLOSIS

Salmonella is a zoonotic disease that generally affects the intestines and occasionally the bloodstream, therefore the most commonly seen condition in humans is persisting diarrhea.

 

Salmonella infected amphibians can appear clean and healthy.

 

Salmonella can spread by either direct or indirect contact with the amphibians (e.g., frogs), reptiles (e.g., turtles, lizards or snakes) or their droppings, cages, aquariums, terrariums, the swimming water and any surface the the animal came in contact with.

 

You should wash your hands thoroughly after touching or handling any amphibian or reptile, or their related items.

FUNGAL INFECTION

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, an aquatic fungus related to water molds, causes a serious skin disease known as chytridiomycosis, in amphibians. The fungus feeds on keratin of the skin, can survives in most environments even without a host and is zoonotic.

Reference: Singapore with Chytrid

frog princess

Some common signs:

 

  • Excessive shedding of the skin (frogs shed skin to get rid of skin diseases)

  • Thickened, cracking skin

  • Pale skin

  • Not moving, couch in the same position for hours

  • Loss of appetite 

  • Looks bloated

  • Constriction of the eye's pupil

  • Abnormal posture of the hind legs

  • Abnormal behavior and disposition

  • Hyperemia (red and warm body parts)

  • Cringes when touched

chytrid infection

Above: Painful skin due to fungal infection cause the frog to hold a "withdrawn" (tucked in) posture. 

Pic by www.frogsafe.org.au

Attribution: 

1. Ballard, B.; Cheek, R. (2010). Exotic Animal Medicine for the Veterinary Technician, 2nd Ed. USA: Wiley-Blackwell

2. Chitty, J.; Raftery, A. (2013). Essential of Tortoise Medicine and Surgery. UK: Wiley-Blackwell 

3. Girling, S.J. (2013). Veterinary Nursing of Exotic Pets, 2nd Ed. UK: Wiley-Blackwell

4. Kottwitz, J.; Coke, R. (2007). Usual Pet Care Volume II. USA: Zoological Education Network

5. Mader, D.R. (2014). Reptile Medicine and Surgery, 2nd Ed. USA: Elsevier

6. Meredith, A. (2002). BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets. UK: BSAVA 

7. Bennett, T. (2011). The Chelonian Respiratory System. Vet Clin Exot Anim, 14(2011), 225-239.

8. Mejia-Fava, J.; Colitz, C.M.H. (2014). Supplement for Exotic Pets. Vet Clin Exot Anim, 17(204), 503-525.

9. NG, PK. A. (2009). The Ecology of Non-native Red-eared Sliders and their Potential Impacts on the Native Fauna of Singapore.  https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/16525 . [Accessed 27/4/2019].

Address

LOCATION

Blk 703 Bedok Reservoir Road 

#01-3508 Singapore 470703

 

CONTACT

Tel: 6243 3282 

(By Appointment Only)

Email: lightoflifevet@live.com.sg

 

OPERATING HOURS

MON & WED & SUN

5 pm to 10 pm

THURS TO SAT

2 pm to 4 pm, 5 pm to 10 pm

CLOSED TUES

& ALL PUBLIC HOLIDAYS

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